This article explores current scientific theories and findings on the origin of humanity through the lens of Scripture. Belief that the Bible is God's inerrant testimony to mankind, written under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, provides the valuable insight necessary to understand the color woven through the tapestry of human history and pre-history. That's a poetic way of saying that the story gets complicated but the Bible holds the keys to sorting it out. We can look at scientific evidence through Scripture and we can know that Scripture is a high quality instrument for doing so. But the scientific evidence is just that: evidence, scant clues to a distant past. This is a caution against holding dogmatically to any emerging picture that forms. My goal is to present as a clear a picture as I can with the evidence at hand, and then to keep abreast of the shifting scientific evidence and re-present a clearer picture in the future, if that becomes possible. What I won't do is place a stake in the ground saying "this is it" on any territory other than the ground of Scripture itself.
Ages Of Joy considers Genesis 1 to belongs to the genre of epic narrative. This view holds that Genesis 1 was written to present a theologically correct view of God and creation while serving as a timeless polemic against false narratives: both godless creation stories and polytheistic stories. The Author's intent appears to be to present the actual history of the creation and preparation of the Earth as a series of "births", each generation being represented as one Day. Looking through the lens of Scripture, the Ages Of Joy perspective seeks the six days of creation in the geologic history of the Earth, identifying them by the content described in Genesis 1.
Our topic at hand addresses the sixth day of creation, which is the day during which God created male and female in His image. We go on from there to explore Genesis 2, the story of Adam and Eve and then follow the thread further through the time of Noah. Buckle up!
The Alleged Homeland of Modern Humans
An article with a controversial headline proclaims the finding of "the homeland of modern humans". In summary the article claims that the birthplace of modern humans has been located in southern Africa, that the female lineage of modern humans is two-hundred thousand years old, and that climate change drove humans out of their birthplace beginning one-hundred thirty-thousand years ago.
From a Christian perspective, this seems all wrong. The Bible teaches us to expect that the first humans, Adam and Eve, lived in the middle east, and much more recently than 200,000 years ago. Furthermore, we look to "sin" as the force that drove humans away form the Garden of Eden, not climate change.
So, let's examine the evidence that the researchers bring to the table, and how their findings square with the Bible.
The study was led by Professor Vanessa Hayes from the Garvan Institute of Medical Research and University of Sydney who is also named as an Extraordinary Professor at the University of Pretoria. Her team collected blood samples from local communities in Namibia and South Africa to isolate 198 new, rare mitogenomes which are passed down mother to daughter, from one generation to the next.
The Genetic Clues
Here is a brief explanation of how that works, which you can skip if you are either already familiar or not that interested:
Each baby that is born inherits genetic material from both parents. The woman's body provides a cell, called an egg, that includes within it mitochondria. Mitochondria are the energy producing mechanism within a cell and are like tiny cells-within-a-cell. Each mitochondria has a small genome (genetic code) of its own. This genome, abbreviated mtDNA, comes only from the mother and is passed on to sons and daughters. However, only daughters pass them on again to their offspring, via their eggs. As such, the mtDNA in a person's cells was handed down generation after generation from their most distant female ancestor.
In a similar fashion, men pass on their DNA through sperm. But these tiny cells do not contain mitochondria. They don't produce energy but rather are meant to live just a short time. Sperm contain DNA from the father, including either an X chromosome or a Y chromosome. When the Y chromosome (Y-DNA) is passed on, a baby boy will be born. If the boy grows up and has a son, he passes on the Y chromosome that he inherited from his father, and ultimately from his most distant male ancestor.
Most of the DNA in a person is a mix of contributions from mother and father, and is called nuclear DNA and it determines most of our genetic characteristics. Studying nuclear DNA can tell us about the mix of ethnicities in our ancestors, and even provide hints as to how long ago that mixing happened. Each kind of DNA, mtDNA, Y-DNA, and nuclear DNA can be studied to answer different questions about our ancestors.
Over time, genomes experience changes to non-coding regions of the DNA. Because they are non-coding, they don't seem to affect the person and are simply preserved and passed on. It's kind of like writing a city and date on a dollar bill and passing it on. It's still a functioning dollar bill, but it's been changed in a way that is permanent and accumulates every time someone adds to it. It tells us something about where and when the dollar bill has changed hands.
By tracking genetic changes, the "relatedness" of two individuals can be assessed. For example, take an ancestor with a given DNA, being passed on mother to daughter, mother to daughter, etc. Now assume a woman has a daughter whose mtDNA has a slight change in the non-coding region. This change is called a marker and we will call this marker L0. All of her daughters and granddaughters and so on will have marker L0 until finally one of them gets another marker, for example marker a. Now all of the decedents will have L0a markers. Now suppose an L0a woman has two daughters, one is L0a just like her, but the other is L0ab, picking up another change. Later on, the L0ab has an ancestor with change L0abc. But other daughters that were in the L0ab line, could also have changes. They will not pick up the same c changes, so we will call them L0abx and then L0abxy. So after a while, there are two diverged lineages: one composed of L0abc, L0abcd, etc and the other with L0abxy, L0abxyz, etc. Both lineages can trace themselves back to a common ancestor with just the L0ab markers, and they also share the L0 woman as their most distant common ancestor.
The rate of accruing changes, each new marker (a, b, c, d, x, y, z, etc) is very approximately equal over time and therefore, some calculation of how long ago the common ancestors lived can be estimated. When ancient DNA can be recovered from bones, the assumed mutation rate can be checked against the dates ascertained for the bones.From the article: "Mitochondrial DNA acts like a time capsule of our ancestral mothers, accumulating changes slowly over generations. Comparing the complete DNA code, or mitogenome, from different individuals provides information on how closely they are related."
A River Basin
Based on the above evidence, combined with linguistic, cultural, and geographic information, the authors conclude that the ancestor of all women lived in the Great Zambini River Basin region 200,000 years ago. That's in the midst of the southern part of Africa. The lineage is referred to as the L0 lineage, the oldest branch of the human female genetic tree. All other human lineages not sharing this L0 woman as a common ancestor have died out, leaving no survivors to this day. So was this woman Eve? And was the Garden of Eden in Zambini?
I am going to argue, "No", as the answer to both questions. Still, there is something interesting about this location as the birthplace of humanity. It is a river basin described as "a vast wetland, which is known to be one of the most productive ecosystems for sustaining life".
That description bears some resemblance to the Garden of Eden in the Bible in Genesis chapter 2:
and a mist (or spring) was going up from the land and was watering the whole face of the ground
And out of the ground the God made to spring up every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for food.
A river flowed out of Eden to water the garden, and there it divided and became four rivers.
The Bible describes a lush, well-watered river-basin environment created for human flourishing. It makes sense that God would place Adam and Eve in such an environment, and this scientific study aligns with the Biblical idea about the kind of environment in which the first humans would thrive.
But that takes us back to the problem that the location and timing do not seem to agree with the Biblical story. I will suggest two ways forward at this point.
The first path is fairly simple. One may conclude that this scientific evidence supports the gist of the Biblical creation story and be satisfied that what the Bible teaches is correct about human origins. Perhaps at the time that writing was invented, which occurred in the Middle East, the story, passed along from generation to generation, was written down referring to places known to the author that fit the description from the traditional narrative. So, when the story of Adam and Even was finally able to be written, the Tigris-Euphrates River Basin was the closest parallel to the Zambini River Basin, whose exact location had been lost track of over time. If you are satisfied with this, you can save yourself a lot of time and effort that will be expended in taking the longer path I lay out next.
A Deeper Story
The second path to explaining the origin of humanity is quite a bit more involved, but it's the path I will take you on. It involves some twists and turns and some ideas that may be very new and very uncomfortable to grapple with for the first time.
The discovery that modern humans also share genetic material, in other words ancestors, with Neanderthal and Denisovans came as a shocking discovery. However controversial this theory was at its inception, it has since been demonstrated by repeated analysis of ancient DNA from humans, Neanderthal, and Denisovans. Neanderthals and Denisovans are often categorized as Homo Sapiens, in part because they can successfully interbreed with human beings. But they appear distantly related to human beings and more closely related to each other. It has been shown that most genetic samples from non-African groups tested so far contain remnants of Neanderthal or Denisovan DNA. In other words, seemingly all non-Africans share some small traces of DNA that go back much farther than 200,000 years ago. Evidence for this linkage is still putative. As of November 2017, genome-wide DNA sequences for just 5 Neanderthals had been isolated.
So what about Africans? While genetic time capsules in human female mitochondrial DNA contain a wealth of tantalizing information, they don't tell the whole story. Fossils from Africa dating to about 195,000 years ago, namely the Omo remains, indicate an overall modern human morphology with some primitive features. Analysis of other African fossils, the Herto Man, dated to 160,000 years ago, ascribes that fossil to the Homo Sapiens Idaltu sub-species, which is still considered an anatomic ancestor to true anatomically modern humans.
The homeland article describes two migrations out of South Africa. The first occurred 130,000 years ago and followed to the northeast green, vegetated corridors that opened up as the climate changed. This was the first successful migration away from this ancestral homeland of homo sapiens bearing the L0 marker. But these early northeastern migrants struggled to thrive as the climate dried out again. A second wave of migrants headed southwest to the tip of South Africa about 110,000 years ago. There they are thought to have thrived by exploiting the marine environment that provided abundant foraging opportunity.
Changing climate conditions split the populations into isolated groups that developed under different environmental conditions. By 130,000 years ago, the population had diverged from their L0 roots to an L1 group in West Africa, L2 in East Africa, and L3 in the region of North Africa and possibly the Levant. L0 remnants remained in Southern Africa.
Climate models of Africa and the Middle East identify two main time windows when the Arabian Peninsula, instead of being a barren desert, was a lush grassland. One such window opened between about 120,000 to 90,000 years ago.
An early migration out of Africa by humans has been identified by the discovery of a fossil human finger bone, found with stone tools, and dated to 88,000 years ago. Early migrants were lingering in Arabia when the window closed.
Despite all this, according to the Recent African Origins of Modern Humans scientific model, the early migrations out of Africa had all died out or retreated to Africa by 80,000 years ago.
Changing climate conditions opened up another opportunity for humans to spread out of Africa about 70,000 years ago.
Would The Real Modern Human Please Step Forward?
While human-looking creatures may have been wandering the Earth since 200,000 years ago, evidence from skulls demonstrates that the modern human brain shape did not appear until 100,000 to 35,000 years ago. The wide date range in this case is attributed to the sparsity of high quality fossils in this time period. Future discoveries may be needed to narrow down this time window. As corroborating evidence, the oldest human-made arrowheads date to 64,000 years ago. Arrowheads are considered "micro-lithic" technology, in other words, finely crafted stone tools. Arrowheads and the bows necessary to project them are difficult to make and speak to abilities unique to human beings as distinct from earlier creatures.
What this testifies to is that these earlier humans, while physically and mentally similar to modern humans, were still not fit and ready for what God would do next.
Acts 17:26 testifies to how God works in human history. "And [God] made from one man every nation of mankind to live on all the face of the earth, having determined allowed periods and the boundaries of their dwelling places".
Pressure in Africa to find a route off the continent may have contributed to a confluence of migrants from various areas within Africa meeting in an area west of the Red Sea. Here, a best-of-breed human population may have arisen, the fittest of all Africa. Hybrids incorporating the best features and fit for finally establishing a permanent presence of humans outside of Africa may have arisen at this time.
As climate change occurred across Africa and the Middle East, there were limited time windows when humans could effectively migrate from one area to another. Stretches of dry, hot desert separated groups from each other for thousands of years at a time. While some sophisticated human behaviors existed in South Africa as early as 100,000 years ago, these humans were trapped. Then 60,000 to 70,000 years ago, the changing climate opened up a fertile lane from South to East Africa.
Researchers suggest that the mixing of Southern and Eastern Africans created an admixture that was ripe to expand to the whole world:
The Bible gives us the backstory on what God was doing:
Three times in Genesis 1:27, God is declared as the creator of human beings. The emphasis conveys that all this work is certainly His. The Bible also states that humans were blessed to fill the earth and subdue it. Until about 70,000 years ago, early humans were mostly trapped in Africa and those that did make it out, failed to thrive.
Finally, God had created men and women in His image. He was about to bless them.
But what about Adam and Eve?
Genesis 2 in the Bible relates the story of God forming Adam from the dust of the Earth, placing him in the Garden of Eden, creating Eve from Adam's flesh, and bringing her to Adam in the Garden. Since humans had already moved beyond the Great Zambini River Basin, are we looking for a new Garden of Eden? Yes, we are. And the Bible also tells us where to look.
Genesis 2:8-14 "...the LORD God planted a garden, in the east... A river flowed out of Eden to water the garden, and there it divided and became four rivers. ...the Pishon... the Gihon... the Tigris, which flows east of Assyria.... and the Euphrates."
The Tigris and Euphrates drain into what is now the Persian Gulf. But 70,000 years ago, during the ice age, the sea levels were lower and what is now a gulf was once a fertile river basin, the likely location of the ancient Garden of Eden. So how did people get from Africa, to the Garden of Eden in the East? Let's consider two more clues.
The first is clear enough: Genesis 2:15 says, "The LORD God took the man and put him in the garden of Eden to work it and keep it."
The second clue takes a bit more work and its interpretation is subject to debate. But here it is:
Hosea 11:1b "out of Egypt I called my son."
This verse is used figuratively of the nation of Israel, when God led them by way of the Red Sea away from Egypt and out into the Sinai Desert. It is also fulfilled in Matthew 2:13-15 by Jesus returning from Egypt, where he and his family had fled, back to Israel.
Adam, the first man, is also called "the Son of God", just as Jesus was. Of Jesus Christ it is written, "The first man Adam became a living being; the last Adam became a life-giving spirit." 1 Corinthians 15:45.
This parallel gives us our second clue. God called Adam out of Egypt and put him in Eden. We can't prove this directly from the Bible - it is only suggested. But if we follow this thread, we can interpret the scientific record or humanity's origin through the lens of Scripture.
A 2015 study supports the idea that successful migration of humans out of Africa took a northerly route from Egypt into Sinai, probably 55,000 to 65,000 years ago, and almost certainly more recently than 75,000 years ago. It was this migration that filled Earth with humans.
Some evidence suggests that sea-faring humans populated the island of Luzon, Philippines by 67,000 years ago. It cannot yet be proven that these were modern humans, however.
Now we arrive at a more narrative, explanatory place in telling the human story. What follows is speculative at best.
By about 70,000 years ago [a range from about 75,000 to 65,000 should be considered based on research available at this time], God had cultivated the human physical and mental form until it was ready to bear His image, not only physically, but now also spiritually. Consider a small band of human beings, fully formed as to the flesh, but lacking this one thing: an immortal spirit. There they lived, in or near Egypt. Perhaps in the Land of Goshen where the Israelites dwelt for 400 years while God shepherded them into a great nation from the 70 descendants of Jacob.
For comparison, the entire pre-1492 native population of the Americas is thought to have descended from just 70 individuals who crossed the land bridge between Asia and North America.
Now suppose that among this group, God sees a young woman. She will bear a son who will be the son of God. Not God Incarnate, but Image Bearer of God, Adam, the First Man. Consider the parallel: in Christ, spirit took on flesh; in Adam, flesh took on spirit.
God's Spirit overshadowed this young woman. She became pregnant and bore a son, whom God named Adam. Unlike the Angels in Heaven, Adam is made of the dust of Earth, like an animal, like the creatures before him. But unlike all other creatures, into Adam God breathed an immortal soul, and Adam became a living being. Not living in the sense of physical life, but living in a much greater sense - that of spiritual life.
Perhaps, like Jesus, while yet a small child, God called Adam's family out of Egypt, across the fertile wilderness to the Persian Oasis. Jesus, at age 12, went to the Temple of God, where His family did not find Him for three days. Perhaps it was similar for Adam. Perhaps at about age 12, God appeared to Adam and led him on a walk-about. A walk-about is the traditional rite of the Australian Aboriginal people, which marks a transition to adulthood sometime between the ages of 10 and 16. Since Aboriginal culture extends back almost 65,000 years, this tradition may have begun with God and Adam in some fashion.
God led Adam to the garden He had prepared - the Garden of Eden. There, Adam lived alone for a time, visited only by God Himself. God taught Adam how to tend the Garden.
Adam left the hunter-gatherer lifestyle behind. He became an arboreal cultivator, that is he survived by tending trees. A 2011 study indicates humans were wearing clothing as early as 170,000 years ago. But not Adam. He abandoned the practice and the lice that came with it. Good riddance.
In time, Adam matured and was ready for a mate. Instead of God finding a mate among his hunter-gatherer family, God had something else in mind. After all, Adam was special. He was spiritually alive, unlike anyone else. Adam also had been endowed with extraordinarily long life.
So God caused Adam to fall into a deep sleep. God took flesh, perhaps a stem cell from the bone of Adam's rib. From this genetic material, which would have contained both X and Y chromosomes, God fashioned the XX DNA of a woman. Perhaps a surrogate mother was again employed, to carry Eve to conception. In time, she grew to an adult woman. God brought her to Adam in the Garden. She was flesh of his flesh, bone of his bone. But more importantly, she was spiritually alive like he was. She became the "mother of all the living", just as testified to by Scripture.
Adam and Eve were the first spiritual human beings. They were endowed with long life. If they remained obedient to God, they would never have to be spiritually separated from Him. They would never die.
But Adam and Eve disobeyed God. In shame, they resumed the practice of wearing clothing. Because they were cultivators, not hunters, they made their clothes from plants. They may have patterned them after the clothing worn by their estranged people group.
God found them and banished them from Eden. Not being hunters and gatherers, they and their children attempted to cultivate the ground and shepherd animals instead of hunting them.
In time Adam and Eve gave birth to Cain and Abel, their first two sons. In jealousy, Cain murdered Abel. Cain was banished.
Abel the shepherd is no more and Cain the farmer is banished from his farm. Early efforts in agriculture take a brutal hit. While evidence exists that limited agriculture efforts continue, the true agricultural revolution will have to wait until after Noah's Flood.
Cain was also afraid.
Taken at face value, there clearly are other people alive on the Earth of whom Cain is afraid. In fact, they live in a land called Nod, which literally means the land of wandering. There are other people wandering around east of Eden. These people would be from the estranged family of Adam and their descendants; heavily armed hunter-gatherers, mighty hunters of whom to be afraid. It makes some sense to identify these with the "sons and daughters of men" while the descendants of Adam, the son of God, and of Eve, would be identified as the "sons and daughters of God". See the cryptic content of Genesis 6:4:
The Nephilim were on the earth in those days, and also afterward, when the sons of God came in to the daughters of man and they bore children to them. These were the mighty men who were of old, the men of renown.In time Cain took a wife.
Cain's wife presumably was not of the line of Adam and Eve. She was perhaps what the Bible would call "a daughter of man". Perhaps she did not have an extraordinary life span. Cain and his wife gave birth to a son, Enoch. Enoch had Eve for a grandmother. Eve was the mother of all the living and Enoch, as a descendant of Eve, would have been a spiritual human being like Adam, Eve, and Cain. But unlike the genealogy leading to Noah, the genealogy of the descendants of Cain make no claims of long lives.
The Mother of All the Living
At the beginning of this article, the mitochondrial types (mtDNA) of female humans, L0, L1, L2, and L3 were discussed. An article published in 2018 makes the case that the L3 female lineage originated outside of Africa about 71,000 years ago and then led to a migration of fully modern humans back into Africa 70,000 years ago. With these L3 females, human males with a Y-DNA type of E also migrated back into Africa. The results of the study indicate a "joint and global replacement of the [indigenous] male and female African lineages by the new Eurasian incomers". This global replacement in Africa and the expansion of humans to the rest of the world effectively resets the true location of human origins. Spiritually modern humans did not evolve in Africa and then migrate out. Rather, God put Adam and Eve in a Garden in the Middle East and from there the world was populated.
The human male Y-DNA type begins with A, followed by BT, CT, CF, an elusive DE, and then D and E. From there it further diverged. The L3 mtDNA diverged into M and N types outside of Africa, and then further diverged.
In the scenario under consideration, Adam would have inherited his mother's mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), either L3 or a slightly pre-L3 version. Eve, made from Adam, would have the same mtDNA. Of course, we cannot rule out modifications by God. After all, God did imbue Adam and Eve with long life spans, so in a sense, we should expect modifications of some kind. God may have created the CT Y-DNA type first in Adam. CT is currently referred to as the "Eurasian Adam" or "Out of Africa Adam" by some in the genetic archaeology community. Unfortunately, many of those who do so probably fail to realize how close to correct they may actually be.
Expanding to the East, those in the land of wandering continued East. The oldest permanent people group outside of Africa and the Middle East are the Australian Aborigines. These people settled Australia up to 55,000 years ago (or possibly earlier), taking the male Y-DNA type C* with them. The women among them carry M and N, but not L3. It is reasonable to believe that these settlers bore God's image with them to Australia, as descendants of Adam and Eve.
In time, spiritual humanity spread among the daughters and sons of man, perhaps rapidly. Humans began to disperse into the world. The direct line of Adam and Eve, who went on to have other sons and daughters, retained a more correct knowledge of God and long life. These are called the sons of God. The descendants of Cain, admixed with the ancient race, will have a distant hint of their ancestral lineages, potentially up to 200,000 years old.
The descendants of Adam and Eve migrated back into Africa, to Australia, to Eurasia and throughout the whole world.
In a short time, everyone on Earth will have acquired a shared ancestry with Adam and Eve and a spiritual nature. All who do not, including Neanderthals and Denisovans died out. Human beings took over the world. By about 65,000 years ago, humanity was establishing a more global reach.
The First City
Cain built a city in the land of wandering (Nod) and named it after his son, Enoch. This may be significant in that ultimately, God's plan involves building a city for His people. But Cain cannot accomplish God's vision for humanity, having rebelled against God. Still, humanity's drive to build cities and congregate people is referenced again in Genesis 11:4 which records this: Then they said, “Come, let us build ourselves a city and a tower with its top in the heavens, and let us make a name for ourselves, lest we be dispersed over the face of the whole earth.” Cain's motivation may have been similar. Possibly, Cain's city was little more than a semi-permanent encampment, but we don't really know. In any case, humanity dispersed.
The Genealogy of Noah
The interpretation of the ancestral line from Adam to Noah is one of the most controversial issues in creation theology. Since we have so far posited that Adam lived somewhere around 70,000 years ago, the next question is, when did Noah live?
In another post, Toward An Historical Timeline for Genesis 2 through 11, I make a case for the Flood occurring somewhere near 10,000 BC. That means Noah's genealogy back to Adam spanned 60,000 years. That's a lot of ground to cover.
There are many interesting aspects to the genealogies in Genesis, but some elements stand out. One is the great length of the lives of the people mentioned. The other is that the age of the father at the son's birth and the age of the father's death are recorded. We have already mentioned acceptance of the long life span of the individual in Adam and Eve's direct line of descent. None-the-less, the total of these ages will not yield 60,000 years. If we assume that only the most important ancestors are recorded, it is still interesting to think about why the genealogies are recorded the way they are.
We can reasonably assume that the genealogy was passed down, generation to generation, orally. Now, it's not difficult to memorize even a very long genealogy, but we can't make assumptions about what the genealogies mean without some context.
The ancestors of the San People of South Africa are thought to date back about 70,000 years. In other words, they might have been some of the first to admix with Adam and Eve's descendants and they retain a genetic signal of the mtDNA L0 maternal lineage and the A & B Y-DNA paternal lineage that pre-date Adam and Eve. Therefore, how they propagated their genealogies might be of some relevance in understanding how we should look at the genealogies in the book of Genesis, chapters 5 and 11.
Some San groups practice naming conventions by which people are named after their grandparents or uncles and aunts, who are classificatory grandparents in some systems. Names jump downwards through generations, from grandparents to grandchildren. Among Ju/'hoansi and Naro, all those who share the same name are believed to be descended from the original namesake ancestor. p. 130 Anthropology of the Bushment, by Alan Barnard, 2007.Since "all those who share the same name are believed to be descended from the original namesake ancestor", this could hamper trying to "add up ages" to get a grand total of time elapsed. Now, we don't know that the Biblical genealogies followed San conventions, of course. But the point is, we really don't know what the conventions were at all. Given that the genealogies in Genesis 5 and 11 both include ten generations, one convention could have been to just keep the ten most important.
This article on wikipedia includes an interesting graphic comparing the Genealogies of Cain and Seth, in the section by that name. It provides some food for thought as to what to make of these genealogies as a whole.
We can assume that these genealogies represent truth about humanity's past because Moses, under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, included them in the Bible. But it cannot be assumed that they were dictated directly to Moses by God Himself as a kind of absolute record. Like other genealogies in the Bible, they are likely the work of human scribes and historians whose contributions were included in the Bible according to God's sovereign will for our benefit and His glory.
I have written quite a few ideas in the article that may be very new to you as the reader, and may be even alarming or offensive. In fact, many of the ideas presented here would have had scant evidence even several years ago. This article may raise as many questions as it tries to answer. I welcome your feedback and offer my views in good faith that as a fellow Christian I desire to see God glorified for all He has done.
While it appears that God may have been honing the human creature into His image over hundreds of thousands of years, He also revealed to us in the Bible the true story of bringing spiritual life into this natural world. Through Adam, God blessed humanity with more than just physical resemblance to the human form. God blessed humanity with spiritual life and a moral obligation to worship God as our Creator. I hope you will join me in doing so.